Pumps Tanks Motors &    Switches

3" Submersible Pumps SEI

3" Submersible Pumps "Grundfos"

4" SEI All Stainless Steel Submersible Pumps

4" SEI All Stainless Subs With Noryl Impellers

4" Submersible Pumps Betta Flo

4" SEI Two Wire Sub Motors 1/2 to 1.5 HP

4" SEI Three Wire Sub Motors 2 HP to 5 HP

4" Submersible Turbine
"High Flow"

Accessories "Water Well"

Bladder Tanks "Zilmet"

Booster Pumps

Centrifugal Pumps

Control Boxes SEI for 3 Wire Motors

Constant pressure Valves

Delavan 12 Volt Pumps

Drilling/Repairing Tools

Feed Pump/Chlorinators

Flow Switches/Float
Switches

Hand Pumps

"NEW"Hand Pump in Well with Submersible Pump
"Simple Pump"
"NEW"

Jet Pumps Deep/Shallow

"NEW" Leak Defender

Motor Protection

Pump in Lake Strainer

Stainless Steel Screens

Sulphur Removal System

Well Water Test Kit

 

 

Questions about Pumps,
Tanks, Motors and Wells


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For a description of frequently used terms, see our Glossary

General Pump & Well

  1. What information is needed to size a pump and tank to a well?
  2. What is a well?
  3. What is my water level?
  4. How do I know what my well will produce in gallons per minute?
  5. What types of well pumps are available?

Bladder Tank, Pressure Switch How to and Why

  1. Why do I need a bladder tank?
  2. Explain how a bladder tank works.
  3. How do I set my bladder tank air pressure?
  4. How do I adjust my pressure switch?
  5. The bladder tank size conspiricy simplified!
  6. How do I check my Bladder Tank to see if it's gone bad?
  7. Show how a Bladder Tank, Tank Tee, Gauge, Pressure Switch etc hook up to a well (In Florida)

Galvanized Tanks

  1. How do I de-waterlog a galvanized tank?
  2. How can I keep a galvanized tank from waterlogging with a submersible pump?
  3. Why does a galvanized tank waterlog?

Submersible Pump Motors

  1. Whatís the difference between two and three wire sub motors?
  2. What size wire should I use for my submersible motor?

Water Quality

  1. What is hard water?
  2. Why does my water smell like rotton eggs?

Sprinklers, Pumps, Tanks and Pressure Switch compatibility

  1. How do certain pumps behave with pressure switches.

Diagrams of different types of pump/tank insallations

  1. Shallow well jet pump. Hand driven well or drilled well.
  2. Deep well jet pump with two pipe jet.
  3. Deep well jet pump with single pipe jet.
  4. Air maker system with a galvanized tank.

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Q.  What information is needed to size a pump and tank to a well?
A.  For me to find the right pump to put in any well, I must have five (5) pieces of info.

  1. The casing (or well) diameter. Most wells today are 4 or larger.
  2. The static water level (distance to water from top of well).
  3. The pumping rate of the well. How many gallons per minute will  the well produce?
  4. The total depth of the well, from top to bottom.
  5. What is the intended use of the water. Are you using it for an average home, or home and a sprinkler system? Is the well just for irrigation, farming etc?  If you do have a sprinkler system or the well is for irrigation, I will need to know how many gallons per minute is needed and at what pressure. The number of sprinklers or heads will not tell me how much water you need. Telling me how many acres your yard is or how big it is, does not help at all in sizing the pump.
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Q. What is a well?
A.  A well can be any excavation of the earth. You can hand dig a hole in the ground and let water seep in.

You can jet or drive a shallow well into the ground to a sand formation, which has a screen at the bottom to let water in and keep sand out. A well can also be a deep well in which there is a screen installed to prevent sand from entering the casing.

Or it can be a rock well where a screen is not necessary. Most wells have an upper casing of either steel pipe or PVC pipe. In a rock well the casing will only go as deep as needed, then a hole is drilled into the rock to provide enough water for the desired use.  In the screened well the casing will go to the water source and the screen will be just below the casing.
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Q. What is my water level?
A.
  Your water level is the distance from ground level or the suction inlet of the pump, to the top of the standing water in your well. top of page

Q. How do I know what my well will produce in gallons per minute?
A. Hopefully, the person who drilled the well did a test to determine the gpm. If not, the only way to find out is to do a pump test.
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Q. What types of well pumps are available?
A. The three basic types of pumps are Jet, Centrifugal and Submersible. The jet pump comes in two varieties, the shallow well jet and the deep well jet. A shallow well jet will connect to the well with 1 suction pipe. It will lift water vertically 25 feet. This is true of Hand Pumps or Pitcher Pumps.

The shallow well jet pump has the jet installed in or on the pump.  The deep well jet is used for wells that have a water level deeper than 25 feet. It uses 2 pipes. One is suction the other is return water to operate the jet, which has to be installed in the well at the water level. The centrifugal pump is used for sprinkling and boosting pressure in some instances. It also can lift water no more than 25 feet. The submersible pump, which is the most popular well pump, can be used in shallow and deep well applications. The smallest submersible for domestic use will fit into a 3" well or larger. The 4" is the most popular and comes in horsepower ranges from 1/3 to 10 horsepower. top of page

Q. Why do I need a bladder tank?
A. Back in the old days when galvanized tanks were the rage, people would have to drain their tanks periodically when they became waterlogged (full of water and very little or no air). This condition makes the pump motor cycle more rapidly which is the motors worst enemy. Since a motor requires about 4-5 times the current to start than it will run at, a lot of heat is created in the motors windings. If the motor runs for a while the fan will pump air across the windings and cool them down. Or in the case of a submersible pump, cool water passing over the motor will cool itís windings. When the tank waterlogs, the motor starts sooner and shuts off sooner. Air in the tank is necessary because it will compress and act like a spring to force water out of the tank. Water is not compressable, and that is the reason for the tank.
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Q. Explain how a bladder tank works
A. When a bladder tank is installed, before putting power to the pump. The tank has a pre-charge of let's say 38 lbs. Ideally the pressure switch should be set to turn the pump on at 40 lbs. and off at 60 lbs. or more. What physically happens is; with no faucets open the pump is turned on. The pump will try to send water somewhere. The tank is the only place the water can go (since water cannot be compressed like air can). The bladder is being pressed against the inlet\outlet at the bottom of the tank with the 38lbs. The inlet\outlet in the tank can't take in any water until the pump over comes the 38 lbs. of pressure that is already in the tank. Now at 38.000000001 lbs, the tank starts letting in water and at 60 lbs. the pump shuts off. The tank has now taken in its total cache of water.

Bladder Drawing

Since the builders - centers started calling tanks by their physical size instead of their equivalency to galvanized tanks. The size can be about anything. In reality a 40 gallon galvanized tank and a 40 gallon equivalent bladder tank can physically give about 6 gallons of water between 40 and 60 lbs. The builders - centers sometimes call this 40 gallon a 20 gallon because that is what it will hold if you cut a big hole in the top and filled it up with water. Of coarse nobody really cares what a bladder tank can hold from top to bottom, because that's not how one works.

As you open the faucet at 60 lbs. the pressure is going to go down gradually. When the tank reaches 40 pounds the pump kicks back on. At that point the system pressure is at 40 psi, and there is a 2 lb cushion to keep the tank from bottoming out and stopping the water flow temporarily. Now the pump starts pumping and trying to either keep up with water demand or getting ahead of demand and sometimes getting to 60 lbs and starting all over again.

The main reason for a tank is to keep a pump from cycling and damaging the pump motor.

There are constant pressure devices that will keep a constant pressure in your house and keep the system from cycling the pump too much. They are called constant pressure valves. They are inexpensive compared to constant pressure pumps and they work in conjunction with a tank. When using a CPV you can use a much smaller tank. This will offset the price of a much larger tank and save you money.
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Q. How do I set my bladder tank air pressure?

A. A bladder tank comes from the factory with pressure in the top of the tank. This air pressure will just about never be what the label says itís supposed to be.  So adjustments are necessary.
Pressure switchís that tell your pump motor when to start and stop are normally factory set at either 20PSI on and 40PSI off or 30 - 50, 40 - 60. I personally like 40 - 70. That gives a little more water between pump cycles. Regardless of the high pressure setting, the on pressure setting is the one that matters to the bladder tank. If your tank has 30lbs. in it and you want your pump to turn on at 30lbs. You will need to let out two pounds making the bladder tank air pressure 28PSI. The same with 20 on or 40 on. Make the tank pressure two pounds less than the on setting of the pressure switch.The reason for this is to have the pump turn on just before the tank reaches itís air pressure setting. This prevents the tank from going completely empty when the air bladder hits the bottom of the tank. If this were to happen, the pressure in your plumbing would immediately go to zero since there is no more water to be pushed out of the tank. This condition is not desired when your in the shower. Of coarse the pump will kick on at this point making the zero condition only momentary, but nevertheless aggrivating.
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Q. How do I adjust my pressure switch?
A.
  Since Square D is probably the most popular pressure switch on the market, thatís the one we will talk about.
 
The Square D pressure switch and a few other brands that have copied Square D normally have two springs pushing down on a plate supported on top by 3/8Ē locking nuts.  These nuts can be adjusted to set the desired on/off pressure of your pump motor.

If you are looking to increase the pressure switch settings, you should first adjust the taller of the two springs.  This spring will move the on/off setting evenly.  That is to say a 20/40 setting can easily become a 30/50, 40/60 or anything in between.  To raise the pressure, turn the tall springs nut clockwise a few turns.  Turn on a faucet and watch your gauge. ( a good working gauge is necessary ) When the pump starts, the pressure on the gauge is your on pressure.  Close the faucet, and let the pump shut off.  This pressure is the off pressure.  To decrease the on/off pressure, turn nuts counterclockwise.

To increase the off pressure, turn the short springs nut clock wise a few turns and run water to re cycle the pump.  Keep adjusting for desired off pressure.

I donít recommend setting switch higher than 70 PSI for many reasons.

Some bladder tanks will not allow much more than the 20 psi differental.  Donít top out the bladder. This will shorten itís life dramatically
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Q. The bladder tank size conspiracy simplified!
A.
When you buy a bladder tank, some folks (like me) will tell you that it is equal in size to a galvanized tank. Why do we do that, you ask? The reason is simple. When you install a galvanized tank, let's use a 42-gallon. It will be completely empty when you first start the pump. The entire inside of the tank will be full of air. When water enters the tank, the air in that tank is compressed into the top 25 percent or so of that tank. That air now acts like a spring. When you open a faucet, the spring (air) pushes water out of the tank at the same pressure that reads on your gauge. Now, since you started filling the tank at zero pressure when the pump first started and you now have a pressure switch that is going to turn the pump on at a pre set pressure of say 30 pounds, the tank is not going to empty. The tank will only be about ½ empty. What happens to the rest of the water? It stays in there. Now you shut off the faucet, the pump runs the pressure back to say 50 pounds and shuts off at ¾ full. The actual amount of water that was taken out and put back during this cycle was 6.2 gallons. 
Lets do the same thing with the 42-gallon equivalent bladder tank. You install it on the system. The bladder is at the bottom. The entire tank is pre charged to 28 lbs. The pump is turned on. The tank does not take in any water until the pump exceeds the 28lbs. At 28lbs the tanks bladder takes in water to the tune of 6.2 gallons and the pump shuts off at 50lbs. Open a faucet, the compressed air (spring) now pushes water out of the bladder at the pressure reading on your gauge until the pump gets to 30lbs. At this point the pump starts up and starts refilling the bladder just before it is completely empty, giving you 6.2 gallons of water. If for some reason your pump did not start at 30lbs, the tank would keep emptying until it gets down to 28lbs, at which time there would be no more water or system pressure. Just air pressure, trapped above the bladder.
That’s the reason we use the equivelency sizing instead of physical size!
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Q. How do I check my Bladder Tank to see if it's gone bad?
A.
Most Bladder Tanks made today have a rubber bladder that is filled with water from the Well Pump. It can eventually rupture over time or from improper air pressure settings. Others have a Bladder that holds the air and the water is put in the tank around the Bladder collapsing it. In either case, when the Bladder ruptures, water from the well will start to steal a little bit of air from the tank with every pump cycle. Eventually the tank will be full of water. If you push the tank from the top slightly sideways to gauge the weight of the tank, you should be able to see if it feels full or nearly empty (which is how it should feel if it's still working properly).

Another way to check your tank is to push the little stem in the schrader valve which is usually on the top or near the top of the tank. It will look just like the vavle on your car's tire. By pushing the stem in, you should be letting a little air out. If water comes out instead of air, your tank is definately bad.

If neither of the above methods work for you, turn off your pump and open a faucet somewhere to let all the water pressure out of your plumbing system. Take a tire gauge and check the air pressure in the tank. It should be two pounds less than the turn on pressure of your pump. If it is not at this pressure but you do have some pressure left, chances are the Bladder is still good and you can add the proper amount of air and keep using the tank. If you have no pressure left, there is a good chance the Bladder has failed.
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Q. How do you de-waterlog a galvanized tank?
A. There are several ways to de-waterlog a galvanized tank. The idea is to get all the water out of the tank and fill it back up with air. This can be done by first turning off the electric to the pump motor. Opening a valve at the bottom of the tank (if you have one) and removing the plug in the side of the tank to let air in while the water goes out the bottom. Note: Never take the top plug out the the tank. It has been sealed so as to not let any air out and once removed it is difficult to reseal. Once the tank is empty, replace the plug in the side using a good pipe dope or teflon tape. Close the valve and turn the pump back on.
If you don’t have the valve at the bottom or the plug in the side, you can open a faucet, prefferably an outside faucet or laundry tub. You will have to install a schrader valve into the tank somewhere, usually in the side opening. This will allow you to connect an air compressor. Blow all the water out of the tank by waiting until air comes out of the open faucet. Then close the faucet and continue adding air to about 15 lbs. less than the pumps pressure switch on setting. Turn the pump back on. By adding the extra air, you will have a much better drawdown than just by simply draining the tank.
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Q. How do I keep a galvanized tank from waterlogging with a submersible pump?
A. The non-tech way is to drain the tank every so often by opening a valve at the bottom of the tank and removing the plug on the side of the tank to let air in as the water is let out. Opening a faucet in the house will not accomplish this task. You must open a valve on the bottom of the tank (or remove a plug if so equipped). The whole idea is to replace water with air. Air is the spring that compresses and pushes water out of the tank to the plumbing fixtures until the pump starts and refills the used water.
The hi-tech way (has been around since I was a baby) is to install a bleeder in the droppipe in the well or drill a small 3/16” hole to let water escape once the pump shuts off. A check valve is installed in front of the tank with a tapped 1/4” hole on the pump side of the valve to install a schrader valve (car tire valve with threads) which with the cap removed will allow air into the pipes while the bleeder/hole is letting water out. I recommend the bleeder/hole to be between 10 and 20 feet below the top of the well. With the above in place, when the pump shuts off, the water will bleed from the bleeder/hole letting air into the pipes through the schrader valve. The pump kicks on and puts the air into the tank. When the air gets down to the level of the the side opening in the the tank, an air release valve lets the excess air out by means of a float. As long as the bleeder/hole and the air release valve are working the tank will not waterlog.
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Q. Why does a galvanized tank waterlog?
A. Galvanized tanks waterlog because well water is somewhat deficient of oxygen. So each cycle of the pump when fresh well water is introduced to the tank, it steals a little bit of air from the tank. Before long (no set time, different in all cases) the tank becomes waterlogged and the pump motor is hammering on and off, trying its best to get hot enough to burn up. Which it will before long.
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Q. What’s the difference between two and three wire sub motors?
A. Since Franklin Electric has been the motor manufacturer for practically every American submersible pump company in the United States up until recently; the information below will relate to only one brand of motor.
The two wire Franklin motor has three wires. Two of these wires are black and connect directly to the power source. The third wire is the green ground wire.
The three wire motor has four wires. A red (start wire) a black, a yellow and the green ground wire. The red, black and yellow all connect to their perspective terminals in a control box which is installed above ground in a convenient location. The green is connected to the ground terminal. The other two terminals in the control box are the L1 and L2 connections which accept the power from the electric company. In this control box are a start capacitor, a relay and sometimes an overload protector and run capacitor.
The two wire motor has a biac switch that energizes the start winding in the motor to get it up to speed. When the motor is almost at normal RPMs, the biac switch disconnects the start winding for the remainder of that cycle.
The three wire motor uses the start capacitor along with the start winding to get the motor nearly up to speed, then the relay points open and disconnect the start winding and the start capacitor until needed again. In the case of the run capacitor, it is in line all the time and does not need a relay to disable it.
When a pump gets locked up due to sand or grit, the three wire motor depends on the start capacitor to have enough strength to kick start the pump. But in the case of the two wire, if the pump is locked up, the biac switch will kick the motor in a reverse direction then back in the foreward direction to try to break the pump loose. Of coarse if the pump is hopelessly froze up, it will have to be pulled and serviced.
The cost for a two wire pump or a three wire with/control box is usually the same . But for my money, I will stick with the two wire. It has been proven to last longer, it is easier to install and you don’t have to look for a mounting spot for the control box.
Two wire motors are available in 1/2, 3/4, 1 and 1.5 horsepower only. Two horse and above are all three wire.
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Q. What size wire should I use for my submersible motor?
A. Below is a chart from the Franklin Electric application manual. It will give horsepower and wire sizes for maximum distances allowed. The distances are measured from the main breaker box to the submersible motor.

Click to Enlarge

Wire Size Chart
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Q. What is hard water?
A. Hard water is the most common problem found in the average home. Hard water is typically defined as water having more than 1 GPG (grains per gallon) of dissolved minerals in it, generally consisting of calcium, magnesium carbonate, and/or manganese. The amount of hardness in water is usually measured  in either PPM (parts per million) or GPG (grains per gallon).
17.1 PPM or 17.1 Mg/L = 1 GPG
OR
PPM or Mg/L divided by 17.1 = GPG
A couple of ways for you to find out how hard your water is, would be to have it tested locally, or you can send a small sample to us, (at least 8 oz) and we will gladly test it for you free, even if you decide to purchase your softener elsewhere!
We will test your sample for hardness, Iron and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), and Email or phone the results back to you.
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Q. Why does my water smell like Rotton Eggs?
A.
HYDROGEN SULFIDE AND SULFUR BACTERIA IN WELL WATER
Reprinted from an article by the Minnesota Rural Water Association.

Hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S) can occur in wells anywhere in Minnesota, and gives the water a characteristic "rotten egg" taste or odor. This brochure provides basic information about hydrogen sulfide gas and sulfur bacteria and discusses actions that you can take to minimize their effects.

What are the sources of hydrogen sulfide in well water and the water distribution system?
Hydrogen sulfide gas can result from a number of different sources. It can occur naturally in groundwater. It can be produced by certain "sulfur bacteria" in the groundwater, in the well, or in the water distribution system. It can be produced also by sulfur bacteria or chemical reactions inside water heaters. In rare instances, it can result from pollution. The source of the gas is important when considering treatment options.

Are sulfur bacteria or hydrogen sulfide harmful?
In most cases, the rotten egg smell does not relate to the sanitary quality of the water. However, in rare instances the gas may result from sewage or other pollution. It is a good idea to have the well tested for the standard sanitary tests of coliform bacteria and nitrate. Sulfur bacteria are not harmful, but hydrogen sulfide gas in the air can be hazardous at high levels. It is important to take steps to remove the gas from the water, or vent the gas to the atmosphere so that it will not collect in low-lying spaces, such as well pits, basements, or enclosed spaces, such as well houses. Only qualified people who have received special training and use proper safety procedures should enter a well pit or other enclosed space where hydrogen sulfide gas may be present.

Are there other problems associated with sulfur bacteria or hydrogen sulfide?
Yes. Sulfur bacteria produce a slime and can promote the growth of other bacteria, such as iron bacteria. The slime can clog wells, plumbing, and irrigation systems. Bacterial slime may be white, grey, black or reddish brown if associated with iron bacteria. Hydrogen sulfide gas in water can cause black stains on silverware and plumbing fixtures. It can also corrode pipes and other metal components of the water distribution system.

What causes hydrogen sulfide gas to form in groundwater?
Decay of organic matter such as vegetation, or chemical reactions with some sulfur-containing minerals in the soil and rock, may naturally create hydrogen sulfide in gas in groundwater. As groundwater moves through soil and rock formations containing minerals of sulfate, some of these minerals dissolve in the water. A unique group of bacteria, called "sulfur bacteria" or "sulfate-reducing bacteria" can change sulfate and other sulfur containing compounds, including natural organic materials, to hydrogen sulfide gas.

How is hydrogen sulfide gas produced in a water heater?
A water heater can provide an ideal environment for the conversion of sulfate to hydrogen sulfide gas. The water heater can produce hydrogen sulfide gas in two ways - creating a warm environment where sulfur bacteria can live, and sustaining a reaction between sulfate in the water and the water heater anode. A water heater usually contains a metal rod called an "anode," which is installed to reduce corrosion of the water heater tank. The anode is usually made of magnesium metal, which can supply electrons that aid in the conversion of sulfate to hydrogen sulfide gas. The anode is 1/2 to 3/4 inches in diameter and 30 to 40 inches long.

How can I find the source of a hydrogen sulfide problem, and what can I do to eliminate it?
The odor of hydrogen sulfide gas can be detected in water at a very low level. Smell the water coming out of the hot and cold water faucets. Determine which faucets have the odor. The "rotten egg" smell will often be more noticeable from the hot water because more of the gas is vaporized. Your sense of smell becomes dulled quickly, so the best time to check is after you have been away from your home for a few hours. You can also have the water tested for hydrogen sulfide, sulfate, sulfur bacteria, and iron bacteria at an environmental testing laboratory. The cost of testing for hydrogen sulfide ranges from $20 to $50 depending on the type of test.

* If the smell is only from the hot water faucet the problem is likely to be in the water heater.
* If the smell is in both the hot and cold faucets, but only from the water treated by a water softener and not in the untreated water the problem is likely to be sulfur bacteria in the water softener.
* If the smell is strong when the water in both the hot and cold faucets is first turned on, and it diminishes or goes away after the water has run, or if the smell varies through time the problems is likely to be sulfur bacteria in the well or distribution system.
* If the smell is strong when the water in both the hot and cold faucets is first turned on and is more or less constant and persists with use the problem is likely to be hydrogen sulfide gas in the groundwater.

What can I do about a problem water heater?
Unless you are very familiar with the operation and maintenance of the water heater, you should contact a water system professional, such as a plumber, to do the work.

* Replace or remove the magnesium anode. Many water heaters have a magnesium anode, which is attached to a plug located on top of the water heater. It can be removed by turning off the water, releasing the pressure from the water heater, and unscrewing the plug. Be sure to plug the hole. Removal of the anode, however, may significantly decrease the life of the water heater. You may wish to consult with a reputable water heater dealer to determine if a replacement anode made of a different material, such as aluminum, can be installed. A replacement anode may provide corrosion protection without contributing to the production of hydrogen sulfide gas.
* Disinfect and flush the water heater with a chlorine bleach solution. Chlorination can kill sulfur bacteria, if done properly. If all bacteria are not destroyed by chlorination, the problem may return within a few weeks.
* Increase the water heater temperature to 160 degrees Fahrenheit (71 degrees Celsius) for several hours. This will destroy the sulfur bacteria. Flushing to remove the dead bacteria after treatment should control the odor problem.

CAUTION: Increasing the water heater temperature can be dangerous. Before proceeding, consult with the manufacturer or dealer regarding an operable pressure relief valve, and for other recommendations. Be sure to lower the thermostat setting and make certain the water temperature is reduced following treatment to prevent injury from scalding hot water and to avoid high energy costs.

What if sulfur bacteria are present in the well, the water distribution system, or the water softener?

* Have the well and distribution system disinfected by flushing with a strong chlorine solution (shock chlorination) as indicated in the "Well Disinfection" fact sheet from the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH). Sulfur bacteria can be difficult to remove once established in a well. Physical scrubbing of the well casing, use of special treatment chemicals, and agitation of the water may be necessary prior to chlorination to remove the bacteria, particularly if they are associated with another type of bacteria known as "iron bacteria". Contact a licensed well contractor or a Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) well specialist for details.
* If the bacteria are in water treatment devices, such as a water softener, contact the manufacturer, the installer, or the MDH for information on the procedure for disinfecting the treatment devices.

What if hydrogen sulfide gas is in the groundwater?
The problem may only be eliminated by drilling a well into different formation capable of producing water that is free of hydrogen sulfide gas or connecting to an alternate water source, if available. However, there are several options available for treatment of water with hydrogen sulfide gas.

* Install an activated carbon filter. This option is only effective for low hydrogen sulfide levels, usually less than 1 milligram per liter (mg/L).* The gas is trapped by the carbon filter is saturated. Since the carbon filter can remove substances in addition to hydrogen sulfide gas, it is difficult to predict its service life. Some large carbon filters have been known to last for years, while some small filters may last for only weeks or even days.
* Install an oxidizing filter, such as a "manganese greensand" filter. This option is effective for hydrogen sulfide levels up to about 6 mg/L. Manganese greensand filters are often used to treat iron problems in water. The device consists of manganese greensand media, which is sand coated with manganese dioxide. The hydrogen sulfide gas in the water is changed to tiny particles of sulfur as it passes through the filter. The filter must be periodically regenerated, using potassium permanganate, before the capacity of the greensand is exhausted.
* Install an oxidation-filtration system. This option is effective for hydrogen sulfide levels up to and exceeding 6 mg/L. These systems utilize a chemical feed pump to inject an oxidizing chemical, such as chlorine, into the water supply line prior to a storage or mixing tank. When sufficient contact time is allowed, the oxidizing chemical changes the hydrogen sulfide to sulfur, which is then removed by a particulate filter, such as a manganese greensand filter. Excess chlorine can be removed by activated carbon filtration.

Other related references that are available from MDH include:

Well Disinfection
Iron Bacteria in Well Water
Sulfate in Well Water
Well Owner's Handbook

If you have any questions, please contact a licensed well contractor, a reputable water treatment company, or a well specialist at one of the following offices of the MDH:

Minnesota Department of Health
Well Management Section
PO Box 64975
St. Paul, Minnesota 55164-0975
651-215-0811

Source: Minnesota Department of Health Fact Sheet/Brochure "Why Does My Water Smell Like Rotten Eggs? Hydrogen Sulfide and Sulfur Bacteria in Well Water"
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Q. How do sprinklers, pumps, tanks, timers and pressure switches work together?
A. Whether your using a Jet pump, Centrifugal pump or a Submersible pump, you can use sprinklers either with a pressure switch and a tank (bladder or otherwise) or you can use a sprinkler timer to operate the pump in conjuction with the sprinklers. Note: I don’t recommend the centrifugal with a pressure switch. They are very hard to operate with a switch and very sensitive to water level fluctuations. People do it all the time, but I’m speaking from experience. The jet and submersible will work well with presssure switches.
When using a timer to operate the sprinklers and the pump, you will not have the option of having water available for hand watering, car washing etc. Because the timer is the only thing that controls the pump.
If you have a timer for the sprinklers or not, you can have a pressure switch that will control the pump. The pressure switch will turn the pump on and off at a preset pressure usually with a 20 pound differential. These pressures can be adjusted to match the sprinkler system. Along with the switch, you must have a tank. The tank can be as small as one gallon as long as you can adjust the switch to keep the pump running during the watering cycle. Cycling of the pump is very hard on the motor and will severly shorten it’s life.
You can have the pump controlled by a tank and pressure switch and have the sprinklers controlled by a timer. This configuration isolates the pump from the sprinklers and makes hand watering, car washing possible and also protects the pump from running dead head against a bad solonoid valve that didn’t open. If no water is used the pump just won’t come on.
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